torsen (English, Русский)

torsen automatically locking differential(Edit)

The Torsen differential is a mechanical self-locking centre differential which regulates the power between the front and rear axles according to demand. The word "Torsen" is made up of the words "torque" and "sensing", indicating that the differential operates on the basis of torque sensing. It responds to varying rotational forces between the input and output shafts (front and rear axle). This enables variable distribution of the driving torque between the axles. On a Torsen differential the two output gears are interconnected by worm gears. They limit high differential rotation speeds, but still balance the speeds when cornering.

The main disadvantage of the Torsen differential is when no torque is sensed on one of the axles, the differential does not lock. Torsen differential is not capable of transferring 100% of torque to one of the axles. In real life this means that when a single axle loses grip completely (very low traction on ice, or if wheels raised in the air) the car is not able to move.

See Audi.

See Audi Q5 quattro vs. BMW X3 xDrive rollers test

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T-1(Edit)

The original Torsen T-1 (Type A) uses crossed axis helical gears to increase internal friction. The Type I can be designed for higher torque bias ratios than the Type II, but typically has higher backlash and the potential for Noise, Vibration, and Harshness (NVH) issues, and requires a precise setup/installation.

Figure: T-1 (Type A)
T1_wpl

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T-2(Edit)

The later Torsen T-2 (Type B) uses a parallel gear arrangement to achieve a similar effect. There is also a specialist application of the T-2, known as the T-2R (RaceMaster).

Figure: T-2 (Type B)
T2color2

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T-3(Edit)

The latest Torsen T-3 (Type C) is a planetary type differential, in that the nominal torque split is not 50:50. The Type C is available as single or twin version; the Torsen twin C differential has front and center differential in the same unit.

Figure: T-3 (Type C)
T3twin_2_2

(Source: Wikipedia)

Figure: Torsen type I automatically locking differential
torsen-type-1

Figure: Torsen type II automatically locking differential
torsen-type-2

Figure: Audi's Torsen type 1 center differential (1)
torsen-type-1-audi-80-100-90-200-a4-a6-s4-s6-torsen-differential

Figure: Audi's Torsen type 1 center differential
torsen-type-1-audi-80-90-100-200-a4-a6-s4-s6

Figure: Audi's Torsen type 1 center differential, disassembled
torsen-type-1-audi-80-90-100-200-a4-a6-s4-s6-disassembled

Figure: Torsen type II (left) and Torsen type I
torsen-photo

Figure: Torsen type III planetary gear differential
torsen-type-3

Figure: Torsen type III planetary gear differential on Audi quattro
audi-quattro-5-torsen-type-3-differential

Figure: How does Torsen differential work. Operating principle.
torsen-differential-operating-principle

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There are 4 comments
Tostik
June 23, 2013 - 23:41

Quote from above:

"The main disadvantage of the Torsen differential is when no torque is sensed on one of the axles, the differential does not lock. Torsen differential is not capable of transferring 100% of torque to one of the axles. In real life this means that when a single axle loses grip completely (very low traction on ice, or if wheels raised in the air) the car is not able to move."

But the recent Audis have an ABS braking traction control when one wheel loses all traction, and it also brakes when two wheels on one axle lose all traction. So Audis have the best of both worlds, with the braking traction control system doing away with the disadvantages of Torsen.

Daniels118
August 28, 2012 - 07:47

To see a Torsen Twin C made of Lego:
www.youtube.com

allrad
December 08, 2009 - 18:06
brilliant video - must watch!!!

anyone watching this video have to understand function of Torsen diff!!! ---> www.youtube.com

Reply to allrad
George
December 27, 2009 - 23:13
Re: brilliant video - must watch!!!

Better video of torque sensitive differential.
www.youtube.com

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